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3: Chemistry of Life - Biology


This chapter provides the chemistry background needed to understand the human body, its functions, and its processes. The chapter describes biochemical compounds and reactions as well as the significance of water to life.

  • 3.1: Case Study: Chemistry and Your Life
    Joseph is a college student who has watched his father suffer from complications of type 2 diabetes over the past few years.
  • 3.2: Elements and Compounds
    If you look at your hand, what do you see? Of course you see skin, which consists of cells. But what are skin cells made of? Like all living cells, they are made of matter. In fact, all things are made of matter.
  • 3.3: Chemical Bonding
    When you think of bonding, you may not think of ions. Like most of us, you probably think of bonding between people. Like people, molecules bond — and some bonds are stronger than others. It's hard to break up a mother and baby, or a molecule made up of one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms!
  • 3.4: Biochemical Compounds
    What do all these foods have in common? All of them consist mainly of large compounds called carbohydrates, often referred to as "carbs." Contrary to popular belief, carbohydrates are an important part of a healthy diet. They are also one of four major classes of biochemical compounds.
  • 3.5: Carbohydrates
    Where would we be without our jeans? They have been the go-to pants for many people for decades, and they are still as popular as ever. Jeans are made of denim, a type of cotton fabric.
  • 3.6: Lipids
    It glistens with fat, from the cheese to the steak. You may never have visited Philadelphia, but you probably know about its famous gastronomic delight, the Philly cheesesteak, pictured here.
  • 3.7: Proteins
    Drinks like this shake contain a lot of protein. Such drinks are popular with people who want to build muscle because muscle tissue consists mainly of protein. Making up muscles is just one of a plethora of functions of this amazingly diverse class of biochemicals.
  • 3.8: Nucleic Acids
    Nucleic acids are the class of biochemical compounds that includes DNA and RNA. These molecules are built of small monomers called nucleotides. Many nucleotides bind together to form a chain called a polynucleotide. The nucleic acid DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) consists of two polynucleotide chains. The nucleic acid RNA(ribonucleic acid) consists of just one polynucleotide chain.
  • 3.9: Energy in Chemical Reactions
    These old iron chains give off a small amount of heat as they rust. The rusting of iron is a chemical process. It occurs when iron and oxygen go through a chemical reaction similar to burning, or combustion.
  • 3.10: Chemical Reactions in Living Things
    We stay alive because millions of different chemical reactions are taking place inside our bodies all the time.
  • 3.11: Biochemical Properties of Water
    It's often called the "water planet," and it's been given the nickname "the blue marble." You probably just call it "home." Almost three quarters of our home planet is covered by water, and without it, life as we know it could not exist on Earth. Water, like carbon, has a special role in living things.
  • 3.12: Acids and Bases
    You probably know that car batteries like this one contain dangerous chemicals such as strong acids. Strong acids can hurt you if they come into contact with your skin or eyes. Therefore, it may surprise you to learn that your life depends on acids.
  • 3.13: Case Study Diet Conclusion and Chapter Summary
    After reading this chapter, you should be able to see numerous connections between chemistry, human life, and health.

Thumbnail: 3D model of L-tryptophan. Image used with permission (Public Domain; Benjah-bmm27).


3: Chemistry of Life - Biology

All life exists within the context of its environment. Each environment is characterized by its biological, physical, and chemical properties. Since organisms are adapted to a specific environment, radical changes in these conditions often result in injury to the individual or possibly extinction of the species. Recent reports of declining frog populations, for example, have been correlated with increased ultraviolet radiation from the sun (specifically UVB). Chemical reactions that take place inside of an organism are dependent upon both internal and external chemical and physical properties. We will explore some of these properties in today’s lab.


3: Chemistry of Life - Biology

Topic 3– The chemistry of life (syllabus content)

Chemical elements and water

State that the most frequently occurring chemical elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.

State that a variety of other elements are needed by living organisms, including sulphur, calcium, phosphorous, iron and sodium.

State one role for each of the elements mentioned in 3.1.2.

Draw and label water molecules to show their polarity and hydrogen bond formation.

Outline the thermal, cohesive and solvent properties of water.

Explain the relationship between the properties of water and its uses in living organisms as a coolant, medium for metabolic reactions and transport medium.

Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins

Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds.

Identify amino acids, glucose, ribose and fatty acids from diagrams showing their structure.

List three examples each of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.

State one function of glucose, lactose and glycogen in animals, and of fructose, sucrose and cellulose in plants.

Outline the role of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationships between monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides between fatty acids, glycerol and triglycerides and between amino acids and polypeptides.

State three functions of lipids.

Compare the use of carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage.

DNA structure

Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and phosphate.

State the names of the four bases in DNA.

Outline how DNA nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds into a single strand.

Explain how a DNA double helix is formed using complementary base pairing and hydrogen bonds.

Draw and label a simple diagram of the molecular structure of DNA.

DNA replication

Explain DNA replication in terms of unwinding the double helix and separation of the strands by helicase, followed by formation of the new complementary strands by DNA polymerase.

Explain the significance of complementary base pairing in the conservation of the base sequence of DNA.


Chapter 3 Chemistry of Life Modern Biology Textbook Holt - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Title: Chapter 3 Chemistry of Life Modern Biology Textbook Holt Author: whaleyj Last modified by: Lauren Created Date: 9/20/2011 6:36:51 PM Document presentation format &ndash PowerPoint PPT presentation

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presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That's all free as well!


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Review

"I am happy to recommend this to those interested in the chemistry of life. The author is well established in the field of chemistry and presents the current interest in biology in the context of chemistry."&mdashSir John B. Gurdon, PhD, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (2012)

&ldquoAn interesting study of the part played by foresight in biology.&rdquo&mdashBrian David Josephson, Nobel Prize in Physics (1973)

"Despite the immense increase of knowledge during the past few centuries, there still exist important aspects of nature for which our scientific understanding reaches its limits. Eberlin describes in a concise manner a large number of such phenomena, ranging from life to astrophysics. Whenever in the past such a limit was reached, faith came into play. Eberlin calls this principle &lsquoforesight.&rsquo Regardless of whether one shares Eberlin&rsquos approach, it is definitely becoming clear that nature is still full of secrets which are beyond our rational understanding and force us to humility."&mdashGerhard Ertl, PhD, Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2007)

&ldquoForesight provides refreshing new evidence, primarily from biology, that science needs to open its perspective on the origin of living things to account for the possibility that purely natural, materialistic evolution cannot account for these facts. The book is written in an easy-to-read style that will be appreciated by scientists and non-scientists alike and encourages the reader to follow the truth wherever it leads, as Socrates advised long ago.&rdquo&mdashMichael T. Bowers, PhD, Distinguished Professor, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Santa Barbara

"In his newest book, Foresight, award-winning and prominent researcher Prof. Marcos Eberlin cogently responds to crucial questions about life&rsquos origin, using an arsenal of current scientific data. Eberlin illustrates his points with varied examples that reveal incredible foresight in planning for biochemical systems. From cellular membranes, the genetic code, and human reproduction, to the chemistry of the atmosphere, birds, sensory organs, and carnivorous plants, the book is a light of scientific good sense amid the darkness of naturalistic ideology."&mdashKelson Mota, PhD, Professor of Chemistry, Amazon Federal University, Manaus, Brazil

&ldquoEberlin brilliantly makes use of his expertise, achieved in more than twenty-five years applying mass spectrometry in assorted areas such as biochemistry, biology, and fundamental chemistry to outline a convincing case that will captivate even the more skeptical readers.&rdquo&mdashRodinei Augusti, PhD, Full Professor of Chemistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

&ldquoMarcos Eberlin, one of the best chemists in the world today, has written a must-read, superb book for anyone considering what indeed sci- ence says of the universe and life.&rdquo&mdashDr. Maurício Simões Abrão, Professor at the University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil,


Pyrophosphate is also known as ester which is formed by the condensation of inorganic phosphates with phosphorylated biological compounds as result a high e.

A part of RNA that is produced by an enzyme binds to the end of the beginning strand. RNA (primer) is the starting point for DNA synthesis. RNA primase is us.

Construction of DNA, RNA, And Protein By Building Models Introduction Nucleic acids are made of nucleotides. When these nucleic acids form sequences they c.

As described in the central dogma of biology, information from a gene can be used to build a protein in a two-step process. Transcription is considered to be.

A. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Principle It includes the primer mediated enzymatic amplification of DNA. It uses the ability of DNA polymerase to ma.

This paper is going to describe the replication of DNA and RNA and the processes of transcription and translation of protein synthesis. What is DNA? DNA is a.

By separating the strands a single one of them is then able to be replicated. When the strands are separated it creates a Y shape which is called a replicati.

Recombinant DNA is genetically engineered DNA that is formed by splicing fragments of DNA. Organismal cloning is the artificial creation of a new organism th.

Next, short strands of RNA, called the RNA primers, are synthesized by an enzyme called primase. This provides a 3’ OH group for enzyme called DNA polymerase.

DNA helicases are responsible for unwinding the helical structure of DNA. They bind to the single stranded DNA created by DnaA protein and move toward the do.


Molecules vs Compounds:

Molecules are defined as any group of atoms which are chemically bonded together. These atoms can be identical for example, oxygen gas is made up of two oxygen atoms (O2). Compounds are two or more different atoms bonded together.

For example, water contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H2O).

Atoms are able to form three different types of chemical bonds - ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds.

Water is both a compound and a molecule

Comprehension Check.

Decide if the following or molecules, compounds or both.


None. Knowledge of basic junior high school science is recommended.

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About this course

Chemistry and biology are traditionally taught as separate subjects at the high school level, where students memorize fundamental scientific principles that are universally accepted. However, at the university level and in industry, we learn that science is not as simple as we once thought. We are constantly confronted by questions about the unknown and required to use creative, integrated approaches to solve these problems. By bringing together knowledge from multidisciplinary fields, we are empowered with the ability to generate new ideas. The goal of this course is to develop skills for generating new ideas at the interface between chemistry and biology by analyzing pioneering studies.

When should I register?
Registration will be open throughout the course.

What you'll learn

  • How to generate ideas for research and business
  • How to read and write chemical structures
  • How to use chemistry for biology
  • How to control biological events by chemical means
  • How to integrate chemistry and biology

Syllabus

Unit 1: Understanding Chemical Structures
Unit 2: Writing and Synthesizing DNA
Unit 3: DNA/RNA Applications
Unit 4: Idea Generation Techniques
Unit 5: Writing Amino Acids
Unit 6: Writing and Synthesizing Proteins
Unit 7: Combinatorial Chemistry & Chemical Genetics
Unit 8: Fluorescent Molecules for Tracking Biology
Unit 9: Fluorescent Proteins for Tracking Biology
Unit 10: Review of Ideas
Unit 11: Ideas for Fooling Sugars and Fats
Unit 12: Ideas for Fighting against Cancer & Virus
Unit 13: Review of Ideas


Pyrophosphate is also known as ester which is formed by the condensation of inorganic phosphates with phosphorylated biological compounds as result a high e.

A part of RNA that is produced by an enzyme binds to the end of the beginning strand. RNA (primer) is the starting point for DNA synthesis. RNA primase is us.

Construction of DNA, RNA, And Protein By Building Models Introduction Nucleic acids are made of nucleotides. When these nucleic acids form sequences they c.

As described in the central dogma of biology, information from a gene can be used to build a protein in a two-step process. Transcription is considered to be.

A. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Principle It includes the primer mediated enzymatic amplification of DNA. It uses the ability of DNA polymerase to ma.

This paper is going to describe the replication of DNA and RNA and the processes of transcription and translation of protein synthesis. What is DNA? DNA is a.

By separating the strands a single one of them is then able to be replicated. When the strands are separated it creates a Y shape which is called a replicati.

Recombinant DNA is genetically engineered DNA that is formed by splicing fragments of DNA. Organismal cloning is the artificial creation of a new organism th.

Next, short strands of RNA, called the RNA primers, are synthesized by an enzyme called primase. This provides a 3’ OH group for enzyme called DNA polymerase.

DNA helicases are responsible for unwinding the helical structure of DNA. They bind to the single stranded DNA created by DnaA protein and move toward the do.


How do chemistry and biology relate?

Every activity that sustains life on the planet takes place only because of the chemical properties of the atoms, molecules and compounds involved.

Explanation:

There is a saying that claims that Biology only works because of Chemistry and Chemistry only works because of Physics.

Biological processes of living organisms depend upon the interactions of the atoms, molecules and compounds that make up living tissues and the environment in which life takes place.

The structural composition of living organism begins with atoms making molecules and compounds, molecules and compounds forming organelles, organelles forming cells, cells forming tissues, similar tissues with similar functions for organs, organs function to form systems and systems form the multicellular organisms that roam the planet from fungi to plants and plants to animals. Not to mention all of the unicellular organisms that also interact in the living systems that sustain life on this planet.

We can begin with the fact that the earth's biosphere is about 75% water and living cells are also 75% water. Water is composed of an atom of Oxygen bond to two hydrogens by sharing an electron with each Hydrogen in a molecular bond that creates a slightly higher positive charge on each hydrogen and a slightly higher negative charge on the Oxygen. This arrangements of the atoms and their charges make water a polar molecule. The fact that water molecules are polar gives them unique properties of adhesion (they like to adhere to surfaces) and cohesion (they like to join together).

These properties properties of water make is the universal solvent, capable of dissolving almost any material. Makes water less dense as a solid (ice) then as a liquid (water), which is why ice floats in a refreshing glass of iced tea. Water's polarity creates spaces between the molecules to hold dissolved materials like salt in the sea water.

Water is the primary material in cytoplasm and blood which allows for the transport of materials in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. Water is the Hydrogen donor in the energy exchanges that take place in photosynthesis and cellular respiration. The hydrogen and hydroxide molecular bond of water makes it act as both an acid and a base providing Hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions for an infinite number of chemical reactions that take place at the cellular level.

Basically, this is a long winded answer that hopefully gets each of us to understand that every activity that sustains life on the planet takes place only because of the chemical properties of the atoms, molecules and compounds involved. Whether it is a plant undergoing photosynthesis by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in order to create glucose and oxygen for aerobic respiration in an animal or the complex ionic dance of the sodium and potassium pump that allows nerves to transmit information, everything living thing depends upon Chemistry for life on earth to continue.


Watch the video: Bi 1 Livets kemi (January 2022).