My dad found it so I don't have a lot of good information, but it was probably about 2.5 inches, somewhat west of Portland, and was found on a sidewalk. I don't know the area so I can't say what habitats are there that it might have come from.
I think this may be a male of Trichocnemis spiculatus (Cerambycidae, subfamily Prioninae). This species is known from Western USA/Oregon, based on this key: Screening Aid for the Cerambycidae of the Western U.S.A. (from Oregon Department of Agriculture). By overall appearance, this species fits well. However, females have more pronounced spines at the sides of the pronotum, which points to a male for the individual in your picture.
(picture from http://cerambycidae.org/taxa/spiculatus-(LeConte-1851), also more pictures at bugguide.net)
Relatively few studies have been done on the Diplura, and thus we know very little about their habits. However, the studies that have been published have recorded the basic biological characteristics of the group. The males deposit sperm bundles in the soil and females pick up these sperm bundles and become fertilized. Eggs may be deposited randomly and in clusters. Some japygids suspend eggs at the end of a filimentous stalk. The prelarvae hatch in 7 to 16 days depending on the species. The prelarva does not feed and moves very little. The prelarva molts in about 2 days. The newly molted immature is fully mobile and feeds readily on whatever food source is available. After the second molt the immature form possesses the major setae and other anatomical characters used for identification. During the fourth or fifth molt the individual becomes sexually mature as evidenced by the appearance of the sex organs along the posterior margin of sternum VIII. Diplura continue to molt throughout their lives, adding clothing setae on the various sclerites and regenerating damaged body appendages.
Both major groups of Diplura appear to be omnivores. Many species are predators as well as scavengers. Foods that have been recorded include other Diplura, mites, Collembola, Symphyla, Isopoda, fly and beetle larvae, small arthropods of any class, enchytraeid worms, fungal spores, and mycelia. Some species have been observed feeding on the roots of living plants, including peanuts, sugarcane, and melons.
See Also the Following Articles
Arthropoda and Related Groups • Protura
Allen, R. T. (1995). Key to the species of Campodea (Campodea) from eastern North America and description of a new species from Virginia (Diplura: Campodeidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 88, 255—262. Ferguson, L. M. (1990). Insecta: Diplura. In "Soil Biology Guide" (D. L.
Dindall, ed.), pp. 951-963. Wiley, New York. Kristensen, N. P. (1991). Phylogeny of extant hexapods. In "The Insects of Australia" (CSIRO, ed.), 2nd ed., Vol. I, pp. 125-140. Melbourne University Press, Carlton. Paclt, J. (1957). Diplura. In "Genera Insectorum" (P. Wytsman, ed.), pp. 1-123. Crainhem, Belgium.
Beetle Identification - Oregon - Biology
This Oregon fir sawyer is the western counterpart of the whitespotted pine sawyer. It feeds on Douglas-fir, the true firs, and pine trees of western North America. Adults range from 0.75-1.25 inches in length. Adults emerge in late spring and can be seen all summer (depending on climate).
The fir sawyer is commonly misidentified as ALB in the west. These beetles are distinguished from ALB by the white dot at the base of the wing covers. ALB does not have this white dot, though it has many white spots on its wing covers. Also, the Oregon fir sawyer has a rough and dull appearance while ALB appears smooth and shiny.
Found in the eastern and southeastern states. This species is similar to M. carolinensis. Adults are 0.75 to 1.25 long. They feed on a variety of pines, mostly attacking those that are dead or dying. Adults are active from late spring to late fall depending on climate.
These beetles are distinguished from ALB by their reddish gray mottled color.
Beetle identification oregon
The Bronze Birch Borer is a wood-boring beetle spreading across the Pacific. experiences identifying the first known infestation in Klamath Falls, Oregon.
Japanese Beetles in Oregon Japanese beetle (JB) is a destructive insect moving its way west across the U.S. It first arrived on the East Coast in 1916 and has since established throughout the eastern, midwestern, and southeastern United States.. Small Hive beetle identification card The small hive beetle is an invasive and damaging pest of.
· Click beetles are black or dark brown, and they have grooved sections running down their backs. An adult click beetle may be between 0.5 to 1.5 in (1.3 to 3.8 cm) long. This beetle is common all over the world and there are over 900 species of click beetles in North America alone.
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. Tall Fescue Grown for Seed: A Nutrient Management Guide for western oregon. cereal Leaf Beetle: Identification, Control, and California Quarantine Alert.
· Found a dead adult bright green beetle in wood from an old shed while reclaiming the wood.. Sign in Beetle Identification. Asked April 1, 2020, 10:50 AM EDT. Found a dead adult bright green beetle in wood from an old shed while reclaiming the wood.. View full size in a new window × View full size in a new window. Clackamas County Oregon.
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and a lower plant or shrub for insects to hide. Fireflies prefer shrubs, she said. A variety of species and sizes makes for.
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OREGON – The University of Illinois Extension. annuals and perennials, fruits, insect identification and control, turf management, disease diagnosis and control and U of I resources.
· Identification of Beetle. Asked June 19, 2020, 12:32 PM EDT. Clackamas County Oregon. 1 Response. Thank y for the images. Lucky you! So many ladybug pupae and adults all in one place! The ladybug life cycle has 4 stages: Adult egg larva and pupa. The pupa is a non-moving, non-feeding stage. In a relatively short time, each pupa will split.
The common bugs and rodents that may be infesting your Oregon or. ants and termites to roaches, bedbugs, hornets, wasps, beetles, rats, mice, moles, moths,
The five most widely cultivated hot pepper plant species are Capsicum annuum. according to the Oregon State University Extension. The plants have wrinkled, green leaves and white flowers.
‘Slightly vicious’ pest-control effort tries to make beetles wet themselves success would aid environment, food production
That’s about how many beetle species there are in the world, and the hardy insects are very good at finding and consuming food. This is a key reason much of the food produced for human consumption is impacted by toxic pesticides.
Now researchers believe they are on the verge of a breakthrough that could ward off beetles without a negative hit to human health, the environment or biodiversity.
“Today’s insecticides go in and paralyze an insect’s nervous system,” University of Copenhagen biology professor Kenneth Veland Halberg said in a university statement this week. “The problem with this approach is that insect nervous systems are quite similar across species. Using these insecticides leads to the killing of bees and other beneficial field insects, and harms other living organisms.”
Veland Halbert and his fellow researchers have discovered that beetles regulate their fluid balance through “a fundamentally different mechanism than those of other insects,” they report in a newly published study in the academic journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
Ultimately, they hope to exploit this unique mechanism in beetles by developing an artificial hormone that would make the insects urinate until they’re excessively dehydrated, causing them to die. The compound potentially could be absorbed by beetles when they touch or eat it.
“While it may seem slightly vicious, there’s nothing new in us trying to vanquish pests that destroy food production,” Veland Halberg said. “We’re simply trying to do it in a smarter, more targeted manner that takes the surrounding environment into greater account than traditional pesticides.”
Researchers at the University of Copenhagen, the University of Edinburgh, California State University at San Marcos and Canada’s McMaster University are working together to develop such an artificial hormone. Veland Halberg said the progress so far is promising but “there is still a fair bit of work ahead before any new form of pest control sees the light of day.”
Questions surrounding a predatory ground beetle moves Biology instructor to conduct further research
Studying insects is a unique interest that perhaps most of us don’t share. But for Douglas College Biology instructor Robert McGregor, a passion for insects has led him to dig up more information on an invasive ground beetle. Unusual to the West Coast, this predatory beetle has sparked questions as to how it got it here, why it’s here and the impact it could have on local ecosystems.
During the 2018 Fall Semester, McGregor and his students came upon Nebria brevicollis at the Coquitlam Campus. This beetle is a newer species in Western Canada with no prior history on this coast, except for one recent recording of this specimen found at the University of British Columbia in 2015.
“This species is a very recent introduction to Western Canada” said McGregor. “I had trap catches from Coquitlam and now have confirmed three sites where the beetle occurs. We found about 40 of the new species, many from a site just south of the Coquitlam Campus.”
A bug’s life
The beetle’s origins are European and until recently, it’s been found outside of Canada near Salem, Ore. and in Seattle, Wash. McGregor thinks the beetle may have moved north on its own, as it can fly. He said the beetle is invasive, as it can live in different habitats, but that it’s also beneficial.
“This is an insect that fulfills an important ecosystem function, in that it eats various small invertebrate organisms. It’s not a potential pest, but a predator.”
But from an ecological standpoint, Nebria brevicollis could interfere with native species. Potentially threatening their existence which is concerning, noted McGregor.
“My suspicion is if we sample in more disturbed places, we will find more of them. My interest right now is to find out how extensive this thing is.”
Taking over the west
McGregor explains that a group of beetles found at UBC were collected in 2015 and sent to Ottawa to the Canadian National Collection of Insects, for identification. The IDs were not done until now (four years later) and only one Nebria brevicollis beetle was found.
“What we have done here at Douglas is a more extensive sampling program showing that populations are in Coquitlam at several locations. Our work is proceeding to determine where the beetle is established in B.C.”
However, the UBC beetle is significant because it predates the first collection from Douglas College by three years. This means that the Nebria beetle has been here in B.C. longer than suspected.
Don’t belittle the beetle!
Studying ground beetle communities has been an ongoing project for McGregor and the Douglas College Institute of Urban Ecology because of their relation to human disturbance and climate change.
“Our research can be used by city staff to see long-term trends and changes resulting from introduced species, human disturbance and climate change,” said McGregor. “They are really interesting organisms because they are biological indicators. You can use them to look at environmental disturbance of various kinds, for example, in agriculture or in urbanization.”
The discovery of this beetle shows how important research is in order to better understand unusual animal behaviour.
Biology, Life Cycle, & Behavior
Eggs are laid in the soil, usually singly, in a burrow made by the females ovipositor (an egg laying tube at the end of the females abdomen). The female often covers the oviposition site with soil to discourage predators.
The newly-hatched larva enlarges the hole and burrows perpendicularly to the soil surface. This is accomplished byloosening the soil with its mandibles and using its head and thorax like a shovel to carry the soil. At the surface, the larva flips the soil backward off its head. There are three larval stages, and larvae enlarge and lengthen their burrow as they grow. The burrow may be 18 inches or more in depth, depending on the substrate. While in their burrows, larvae can survive without food for weeks and can also survive temporary flooding. They do not leave their burrow under normal circumstances but often wait at the burrow entrance to ambush small arthropods. When a suitable victim is near, the larva attacks with lightning speed. It throws its head (usually backward) to grab the prey with its sickle-shaped jaws. Then, it pulls the prey down into the burrow to devour it. Somewhat like a spider, larvae secrete digestive enzymes to help break down their food before ingestion. Tiger beetle larvae are unique in that they have hooks located on the back of their abdomen to anchor them to the side of the burrow while they subdue large prey. Tiger beetle larvae, in turn, are fed on by hister beetles, birds, and ants, and are parasitized by bombyliids (bee flies) and several wasps. The larval period may last up to four years depending on the species.
The third stage larva forms a pupal cell within the burrow a few inches from the soil surface. It plugs the burrow entrance with soil prior to pupation. The pupa does not feed, and is the transitional stage between larva and adult. Pupation lasts three or more weeks.
After emergence from the pupa, the adult must wait about three days before digging itself out of the burrow so that its exoskeleton will have time to harden. Even after emergence from the burrow, the adult is still soft and light colored and may be easy prey for predators.
Mating occurs soon after emergence, but repeated mating may occur throughout the lifespan of the adult. To prevent immediate re-mating, males exhibit a behavior known as mate-guarding or contact-guarding. The male uses his large mandibles to grab the females thorax. Then he rides on top of the female for a prolonged period of time after mating to discourage other suitors.
Often subjected to high temperatures on the salt flats, adults regulate their temperature by altering their behavior. This includes seeking wetter areas, digging burrows, hiding in the shade, or using their long legs to stilt themselves as far above the soil surface as possible. Although tiger beetles are cold blooded, these behaviors give tiger beetles some control over their body temperature and help them avoid lethal temperatures on the very hot salt flats during the summer.
Adults feed on just about anything they can see and catch, including invertebrates that may be larger than themselves. Their vision seems acute, as any movement (even by a human at a distance) causes the beetle to turn and face the source of the motion. Beetles, flies, caterpillars, ants, grasshopper nymphs, and spiders are just a few of the invertebrates reported as tiger beetle prey. Although most tiger beetles are wary and not easily approached, they are also preyed upon. Predators of tiger beetles include dragonflies, robber flies, other tiger beetles, birds, and small vertebrates. Mites are also known to parasitize tiger beetles.
Beetle Facts & Information
Different materials attract specific types of beetles into homes and yards. Many species seek out stored grains and packaged foods, while others feed on garden plants, wood, or fabric. Homeowners may accidentally bring the pests into the house along with infested products.
The search for shelter may also bring beetles indoors. Some of these pests overwinter in homes to avoid cold weather. They may enter the house through cracks in the foundation or gaps around door and window frames. These pests can get inside by hiding in:
How Serious Are Beetles?
There are three basic groups that may require treatment inside our homes and businesses:
Beetles are a nuisance because of their ability to damage stored food and property. The pests can damage:
How Do I Get Rid of Beetles?
- Some beetles can simply be removed by using a vacuum or other means of physical removal. Your PMP can provide advice on which of the beetles can be effectively controlled in this manner.
- Inspect foodstuff, fabrics and wooden items prior to bringing them into the home or business to help prevent some problems. Also, moisture control works to help prevent beetle infestations. If an infestation is found, replace and discard infested foodstuffs, fabrics or wooden items.
- Several types of beetles are attracted to lights inside a home or business. Efforts to reduce the attractiveness of lights and sealing entrances into a structure are helpful in preventing problems.
- Good sanitation practices and removing foods that support beetle development and reproduction can be accomplished with a vacuum or another form of mechanical removal.
- Use the &ldquofirst-in, first-out&rdquo concept to help control both food and wood-destroying beetles. Avoid accumulating old fabrics by regularly cleaning out closets to prevent or lessen the possibility of fabric beetle infestation.
While the specific treatment procedures and methods may vary based on the specific diet and habitat of the pest beetle, the components of an effective and efficient treatment closely follow those of a comprehensive integrated pest management (IPM) program.
- Inspection & Treatment Plan: When beetles become a pest problem, your pest management professional (PMP) will provide a thorough inspection to accurately identify the pest beetle. Based on the findings, your PMP will develop an effective treatment plan to resolve the problems specific to your home. Accurate identification is critical, so that the right methods are applied. Otherwise, a wrong ID can result in a plan that does not work.
- Customer Education: Education that explains the life cycle and an explanation of why control efforts cannot be directed only where adult beetles are found will be provided. Therefore, the treatment plan will include targeting areas where the immature stages live and taking action so that they do not become adults. Your PMP will help recognize damage and the signs and kinds of fabric, wood or foodstuffs that beetles infest. Also, customer education will target the use of re-infestation prevention methods once the pest problem is resolved.
- Plan Execution & Monitoring: The treatment plan may include using pheromone-based traps that are useful for determining insect development sites and population sizes. Depending on the situation, your PMP may also use insect growth regulators. They will use products as a last resort and only when the non-chemical procedures are not sufficient to get rid of the problems. If products are needed, they will be used in accordance with the product&rsquos approved label and use directions.
Orkin can provide the right solution to keep beetles in their place&hellipout of your home, or business.
Behavior, Diet & Habits
Beetles belong to the insect order Coleoptera. This is the largest order of insects. There are more than a quarter million beetle species in the world. In North America alone, scientists have identified more than 25,000 species.
Beetles develop in a complete metamorphosis four-stage life cycle (egg, larva, pupa, and adult). The length of the life cycle also varies according to the type. Some develop very quickly and they can produce more than one generation each year. Others, like some of the wood-boring beetles can take several years to decades to develop from egg to adult. The length of the life cycle also depends on the amount of food that is available for the larvae to eat as well as environmental conditions.
What Do Beetles Eat?
They feed on plants, small insects and animal fibers, depending on species. A few beetles are considered pests in gardens and crops, although some species may benefit humans by killing harmful insects. Adults often deposit their eggs near the food that the larvae will eat when they hatch.
Problem Behaviors Carpet beetle larvae eat natural fibers and feathers. They often damage woolens and other fabrics. Others, like powderpost beetles, feed on hardwoods and bamboo. These pests attack furniture and other items made of wood.
Some, like the flour beetles and the grain beetles, attack food products in homes. They also damage food in production facilities and stores. Some damage lawns and landscapes. Immature June beetles, called grubs, attack the roots of grass. The elm leaf beetle damages trees by eating the leaves.
Many beetles are beneficial insects. The lady beetle (often called ladybug) feeds on plant pests like aphids and mealybugs. Gardeners appreciate these insects and try to keep them in the garden.
Sometimes lady beetles can become nuisances. In the late summer and fall, homeowners can find hundreds clustered on the outside of homes. They are trying to invade homes for shelter through the winter or are looking to escape inclement conditions.
Invasion Biology, Ecology, and Management of Western Flower Thrips
Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, first arose as an important invasive pest of many crops during the 1970s–1980s. The tremendous growth in international agricultural trade that developed then fostered the invasiveness of western flower thrips. We examine current knowledge regarding the biology of western flower thrips, with an emphasis on characteristics that contribute to its invasiveness and pest status. Efforts to control this pest and the tospoviruses that it vectors with intensive insecticide applications have been unsuccessful and have created significant problems because of the development of resistance to numerous insecticides and associated outbreaks of secondary pests. We synthesize information on effective integrated management approaches for western flower thrips that have developed through research on its biology, behavior, and ecology. We further highlight emerging topics regarding the species status of western flower thrips, as well as its genetics, biology, and ecology that facilitate its use as a model study organism and will guide development of appropriate management practices.
Beetle Identification - Oregon - Biology
Common Name: Hemlock Woolly Adelgid
Scientific Name: Adelges tsugae
Classification:Phylum or Division: Arthropoda
The Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (HWA) is a small aphid-like insect, about 0.8 mm in length. It is oval-shaped and brownish-reddish in color. Even though HWA is very small (about the size of a period on this page) it is recognized by a covering of dry, white, woolly/cottony/waxy substance on its body and egg masses. This covering is usually 3 mm or more in diameter and is present throughout the life of the adelgid. The eggs are brownish-orange, but darken as they mature, and are covered with the white, woolly secretion described above. Flat, naked reddish-brown crawlers hatch and are very active. Once they settle down they turn black with a white fringe around the edge and down the center of the back.
HWAs have thread-like mouthparts, which are 1/16th of an inch long. These feeding stylet bundles are made up of four separate stylets each enclosed within a sheath, located on the underside of the HWA. The stylet bundles are more that three times the length of the HWA and can penetrate deep into plant tissue and are used to suck sap and inject toxic saliva.
HWA is parthenogenetic and goes through two developmental stages every year. The first cycle or the spring generation develops from March to June. During this cycle over-wintering adults lay eggs, which develop into two forms - sexual winged forms and asexual wingless forms. The winged forms require spruce trees to complete their life-cycle. As such, due to a lack of spruce in eastern United States, the majority of the winged forms die due to lack of suitable hosts. The wingless forms continue feeding and developing on hemlocks. The spring generation reaches maturity by mid-June, when they are ready to lay eggs. Crawlers that hatch from these eggs in early July find new needles to settle on, where they attach and become dormant until October. They feed and continue to develop during the winter and by March of the next year are ready to lay eggs again.
HWA is a native of Asia, where it inhabits several species of hemlock and spruce trees. Its original distribution includes Japan, India, southwestern China and Taiwan.
Since its introduction into Virginia in the early 1950’s, the HWA has spread all over the eastern seaboard. The eastern North American distribution of the HWA, where it is a major pest, includes the following 15 states – Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Massachusetts, Maryland, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia. The rate of spread has been very fast during the past decade, at about 20-30 km/year.
In western North America, where HWA is not considered to be a pest, its range extends from northern California to southeastern Alaska.
Site and Date of Introduction:
The HWA was first observed in western North America on western hemlocks and mountain hemlocks in Oregon and British Columbia in the early 1920’s. It was first discovered in Oregon in 1924. In the eastern US, HWA was first observed in Richmond, Virginia around 1950.
Mode(s) of Introduction:
HWA is believed to have been accidentally transported to western United States from Asia, from either Japan or China. The insect then spread throughout the US probably by the transport of infested hemlock trees. Spread occurs from planted trees to native trees. HWA dispersal in the northeastern US was and is aided by wind, birds, deer and humans.
Reason(s) Why it has Become Established:
Several factors are responsible for the success of the HWA in eastern United States and for their rapid spread. The reproductive behavior of the insect causes high and fast growth. Reproduction is asexual and parthenogenetic, meaning all individuals are female and capable of reproducing. The two annual development stages of HWA discussed above leads to two generations of HWA being produced during each annual cycle. Their reproductive rate is very high, with each female laying up to 300 eggs. HWA multiply very rapidly when they first attack a hemlock tree with high nutritional quality. Thus in the initial stages of infestation, they multiply and spread very fast. Adelgids are very capable at locating and colonizing new young trees rapidly.
They have no natural predators in the eastern US. As such there is nothing to keep their growth in check and they multiply without any competition or predation, on hosts that are abundant.
HWA has adaptive qualities which aids its spread in new areas. It can tolerate extremes of temperature. In its native range in central Japan, it can survive winter temperatures that fall below -35 degrees Celsius and summer temperatures that exceed 40 degrees Celsius. It can also survive prolonged periods of low temperatures. As such its spread and establishment all along the east coast of the US with many variations of temperature is explained. HWA is also adapted to high elevations.
HWA has multiple modes of dispersal. It is carried by wind, birds, other forest animals, and people. It is also transported from site to site on infected trees, where they can spread from planted to native trees, from infested to uninfected trees.
In Japan and other parts of Asia, HWA inhabits ornamental and forest hemlocks and spruce, but their numbers are kept in check by the presence of natural enemies and by host resistance. HWA is found in western US on western hemlock and mountain hemlocks, but these trees are resistant to the adelgid.
In the eastern US, where they are considered to be a major threat to forest ecosystems, they destructively inhabit eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana). They destroy hemlocks by their feeding habits. Crawlers settle at the base of needles where they insert their stylus bundles deep within plant tissues, so that they penetrate the vascular tissue and reach the parenchyma cells of the xylem, which transfer and store nutrients in the plant and connect the xylem to the phloem and pith. HWA secretes saliva which hardens and remains in the plant after the stylet is withdrawn. The HWA thus depletes nutrients by depleting the plant’s nutrient stores. This desiccates the needles, causing them to turn a grayish-green color and drop from the tree. Defoliation follows and most buds are also killed, leading to almost no new growth on infested braches. This usually occurs within a few months of original infestation. Within a couple of years, major limbs start dying off, starting from the bottom, and the entire tree can be dead within four years.
These pests are in turn preyed upon by the ladybug Pseudoscymnus tsugae which are native to Japan. P. tsugae has a very narrow host range and feed mostly on adelgids, particularly the HWA. Their lifecycle is very closely connected to that of the HWA. These beetles are responsible for keeping HWA populations in check in Japan and preventing them from becoming pests.
Apart from the fact that HWA is preyed upon by Pseudoscymnus tsugae in its native range and is their main food source and thus has a place in the food web, no actual or possible benefits of the HWA can be perceived, particularly in the eastern US.
Feeding of HWA on hemlocks causes rapid decline in tree health, followed by quick mortality. Usually hemlocks die within four years of infestation. If the adelgid is left completely uncontrolled, sometimes the tree can be killed in a year or less. Sometimes death does not occur fast and infested trees can survive for relatively long periods of time with very little foliage at the top of the crown. Diseased trees are not very aesthetically pleasing. Such trees are more susceptible to attacks by other insects or diseases and are felled easily by strong winds.
Hemlock tree death is occurring at a fast rate in eastern forests due to HWA invasion. Eastern hemlock is an ecologically important species and often irreplaceable. Eastern hemlock stands provide unique habitat to many forest species which are dependent on the dense canopy of hemlock stands. Such wildlife species include ruffed grouse, turkey, deer, snowshoe hare and rabbit. Many species of birds use hemlocks as nesting site, food source, roost site and winter shelter. Many plant species also inhabit hemlock stands and streams shaded by hemlocks provide habitat to brook trout which flourish in cool waters. Hemlocks help regulate and maintain water temperatures in riparian habitats where they are commonly found. In winter, hemlock stands are warmer than hardwood forests since their dense canopy provides shelter from the wind and as such they provide essential shelter for many forest species. Hemlocks are necessary for the survival of many species of animals and plants that are considered endangered. Apart from these biotic effects, many ecosystem services will be affected as well. It has been suggested that HWA infestation can lead to drastic changes in nitrogen cycling. Substantial increases in nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates have already been observed in infected hemlock stands. The loss of hemlock canopy would increase light availability on the forest floor and also reduce temperature. Thus the destruction of hemlocks by the HWA would have cascading effects that would affect and disrupt the entire ecosystem of eastern forests.
Hemlock is an economically important tree since it is used for pulpwood and to build structures such as barns and sheds. It is also used as an ornamental tree. Thus the loss of hemlock trees leads to economic losses. Even if trees do not die, the occurrence of the dirty woolly masses of HWA on twigs and needles reduces the value of hemlocks as ornamental trees.
Control Level Diagnosis:
HWA can damage trees very quickly and they are spreading very rapidly. Their rate of spread has been about 15 miles/year during the past decade. In many northeastern forests, the HWA has already infested all available host trees. Their potential for further spread is great due to their wide environmental tolerance. In Japan, HWA is adapted to high elevations and wide temperature ranges. This is an indication of possible future spread in the US, with possible spread and occupation throughout the entire hemlock range in the eastern US, ranges that are currently unoccupied by the HWA.
Different control methods should be used depending on the location of the hemlocks. Infestations on ornamental trees need to be controlled by methods different from those used to control HWA infestation in natural forest systems.
In a landscaped environment, an integrated pest management approach should be taken. Cultural and chemical control methods can be combined using the following control techniques –
• Invasion by adelgids can be reduced by controlling their dispersers or preventing access of dispersers to HWA.
• Infested trees can be selectively removed to prevent further spread.
• HWA can be mechanically removed from infested trees by spraying with strong jets of water or by clipping of infested twigs and needles.
• Resistant hemlocks can be planted to minimize infestation by HWA.
• Chemical insecticides can be applied. The most common method is to use horticultural oil, insecticidal soap, or any of several petrochemical insecticides designed to kill HWA. Insecticides can be injected or implanted directly into the stem of infested hemlocks, or they can be applied to the roots. Multiple, repeated applications are usually necessary.
Many of the control options listed above may not be viable for forest environments. The best control method for forest settings would be the use or introduction of biological control agents. There are hardly any natural predators of HWA in eastern forests and the predators that do exist have proved to be very ineffective in controlling HWA. Several exotic insects have been identified that are natural predators of the HWA in their native habitats. The most significant of such insects is the beetle Pseudoscymnus tsugae, which has been the most effective predator of HWA in Japan and has been mainly responsible for keeping HWA populations in check. Several characteristics of P. tsugae make it an effective predator of HWA. It is extremely mobile and feed voraciously and primarily on the HWA. It feeds on all life-stages of the adelgid and P. tsugae’s lifecycle is synchronous with that of HWA. It is adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions and as such can be introduced in the wide range of climates that the HWA invades. P. tsugae has high dispersal ability and searching efficiency.
Several other candidates, such as three lady beetles belonging to the genus Scymnus, have been identified as possible biological control agents of HWA but none possess all the qualities of P. tsugae.
Cheah, C.A.S.J. and McClure, M.S. 2000. Seasonal synchrony of life cycles between the exotic predator, Pseudoscymnus tsugae, (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and its prey, the hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae). Agricultural and Forest Entomology 2:241-251.
Smith-Fiola, D. The Hemlock Woolly Adelgid: Life Cycle, Monitoring, and Pest Management in New Jersey. Rutgers Cooperative Extension. New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station.
Salom, S.M. 1999. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid: A Major Threat to Eastern Hemlock. Virginia Forest Landowner Update 13(2).
Mayer, M., Chianese, R., Sheppard, J. and Palmer, D. 2000. Release of Pseudoscymnus tsugae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae) in NJ. Annual Report 2000. New Jersey Department of Agriculture. Division of Plant Industry, Phillip Alampi Beneficial Insect Laboratory, Trenton, NJ.
Orwig, D.A. and Foster, D.R. Stand, Landscape, and Ecosystem Analyses of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Outbreaks in Southern New England: An Overview. Proceedings: Symposium on Sustainable Management of Hemlock Ecosystems in Eastern North America.
McClure, M.S. 2001. Biological Control of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid in the Eastern United States. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. USDA Forest Service.
McClure, M.S., Salom, S.M. and Shields, K.S. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid.
Baker, J.R., Bambara, S. and Baldwin, R.C.
“Hemlock Woolly Adelgid”
Ornamental and Turf
Department of Entomology Insect Note
“List of State and Counties with Known Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Infestations”
State surveys and reporting provided by State forest health specialists, from respective State Departments of Agriculture and Forestry agencies
USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, Morgantown, WV
“Special Alert: Help Keep Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Out of Maine”
Press Release 6/26/02
Maine Forest Service
“Economic and Environmental Impacts of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae on the Hemlock Resources of Eastern North America”
Theme: Environmental and Economic Impact of Forest Insect Pests, Part 1
“Hemlock Woolly Adelgid”
Distribution, Description, Identification, Life History, Control
Entomology Publication 444-244
Virginia Cooperative Extension
Author: Shahrina Chowdhury
Last Edited: 11/18/2002
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